Written by Chantel DaCosta

40 Types of Doctors and Specialists You Should Know


You may have an established relationship with your general practitioner who is your family doctor. And parents have their children’s paediatricians on speed dial.  Ladies we know our gynaecologists but what about the other specialist doctors that we may need? Do you know the other types of specialty medical doctors?  Medical specialists are doctors who have completed advanced education and clinical training in a specific area of medicine. Here is a list of 40 different types of doctors and specialist you should know.

  1. Allergists (also called immunologists) are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of immune system diseases.
  2. Anaesthesiologists are medical doctors who specialize in anaesthesiology, which is the medical science of relieving pain and managing the body’s vital functions.
  3. Andrologists are the male equivalent of a gynaecologist. They are concerned with helping their male patients with urological, sexual, and reproductive problems that are unique to men.
  4. Audiologists specialize in ear related issues, particularly with regard to hearing loss in children.
  5. Cardiologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases or conditions of the heart and blood vessels.
  6. Critical care medicine specialists (also called intensivists) are medical doctors who specialize in the care of people who are in an intensive care unit (ICU).
  7. Dentists work with the human mouth, examining teeth and gum health.
  8. Dermatologists are medical doctors who specialise in diagnosing and treating diseases and conditions of the skin, hair, or nails.
  9. Developmental paediatricians specialise in the diagnosis and treatment of children with behaviour, communication, or mental problems.
  10. Endocrinologists diagnose and treat diseases of the endocrine glands, which regulate hormones.
  11. Gastroenterologists diagnose and treat diseases of the digestive system, such as hepatitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and colon or rectal cancer.
  12. Geriatric medicine specialists (also called geriatricians) are generally family medicine doctors or internists who specialise in conditions and diseases of older adults.
  13. Gynaecologists are medical doctors who diagnose and treat diseases of the female reproductive system.
  14. Haematologists specialise in the diseases of the blood and blood system, such as anaemia, blood-clotting disorders, and leukaemia.
  15. Immunologists study the immune system in a variety of organisms, including humans.
  16. Infectious Disease Specialists are often found in research labs and work with viruses and bacteria that tend to cause a variety of dangerous diseases.
  17. Medical examiners are public officials who investigate deaths defined by law as being important to the public health and welfare.
  18. Microbiologists study the growth infectious bacteria and viruses and their interactions with the human body.
  19. Neonatologists are paediatric medical doctors who specialise in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders in new-born babies.
  20. Nephrologists specialise in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the kidney and urinary system.
  21. Neurologists specialise in the diagnosis and treatment of brain, spinal cord, and nervous system diseases.
  22. Nuclear medicine specialists use radioactive medicines for diagnosis and treatment of certain problems.
  23. Obstetricians are responsible for the care of pregnant women, from the time of conception through delivery and the period following delivery (postpartum).
  24. Oncologists diagnose and treat cancer. They may be involved in determining the type and extent of cancer and providing treatments such as chemotherapy.
  25. Ophthalmologists specialise in the diagnosis and treatment of eye problems, diseases, and injuries.
  26. Orthopaedic surgeons specialise in bone, muscle, and joint surgery.
  27. Otolaryngologists also known as Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialists treat diseases or conditions of the ear, nose, and throat.
  28. Pathologists examine tissue and blood samples to diagnose disease and autopsies.
  29. Paediatricians are medical doctors who specialise in the care of children.
  30. Perinatologists, subspecialty of obstetrics concerned with the care of the foetus and complicated, high-risk pregnancies.
  31. Physiatrists help people regain function after surgery, a stroke, or an injury.
  32. Plastic surgeons improve a person’s appearance, surgery for a birth defect such as cleft palate, or surgery following an injury or the removal of cancer, such as breast implant surgery after breast removal (mastectomy).
  33. Podiatrists study ailments that afflict the feet and ankles of patients. Often referred to a “foot doctors” they treat athlete’s foot, calluses, nail disorders, and other foot injuries and infections.
  34. Psychiatrists diagnose and treat mental health problems.
  35. Pulmonologists diagnose and treat lung diseases and conditions, such as asthma, emphysema, or pneumonia.
  36. Radiologists diagnose and detect physiological ailments through the use of x-rays and other such imaging technologies.
  37. Reproductive endocrinologists treat infertility and other reproductive or hormonal disorders.
  38. Surgeons evaluate people who have potential surgical problems and perform surgical operations and techniques.
  39. Urologists treat diseases of the urinary system in men and women and disorders of the male reproductive system.
  40. While all other doctors are responsible for treating humans, the veterinarians are responsible for the treatment of sick animals.

Sources: Web MD, Udemy, Bio Explorer, Concise Medical Dictionary


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